Key takeaways from the report area as follows:
- Central banks in advanced economies reacted swiftly and forcefully to the Covid-19 pandemic, deploying the full range of crisis tools within weeks. The initial response focused primarily on easing financial stress and ensuring a smooth flow of credit to the private non-financial sector;
- The pandemic triggered complementary responses from monetary and fiscal authorities. Fiscal backstops and loan guarantees supported central bank actions. Asset purchases, designed to achieve central banks’ objectives, helped contain the costs of fiscal expansions; and
- The footprint of central banks’ measures will be sizeable. Across the five largest advanced economies, balance sheets are projected to grow on average by 15–23% of GDP before end2020 and to remain large in the near future.